The QNAP TS-x53D is a series of two- and four-bay NAS appliances.


Access UEFI interface

Tap Esc repeatedly during early boot with a display connected to the HDMI port, and it'll drop you into the interface once it's completed POST.

Installing Debian

You'll need a USB thumb drive to use as the boot and OS media, and another temporarily to write the installer to. It'll be slower to boot than using the onboard DOM, but you'll get to use all of the drive bays.

Install Debian stable from the netinst image, skipping configuration of the network interface. The debian-installer kernel is too old to include the driver, so custom firmware won't work.

Post-installation, install firmware-realtek and linux-image-5.10.0-0 from backports to get the network working. You'll need to download the *.deb packages on the first boot to enable networking. To ensure the packages are kept up to date afterwards:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/buster-backports.list
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-backports main
deb http://deb.debian.org/debian/ buster-backports non-free
apt update

Bonding NICs

If the router supports 802.3ad, bond the links:

# Bonded NICs
auto enp6s0
iface enp6s0 inet manual
auto enp7s0
iface enp7s0 inet manual

# Bond
auto bond0
iface bond0 inet static
  slaves enp6s0 enp7s0
  bond-mode 802.3ad
  bond-miimon 100
  bond-downdelay 200
  bond-updelay 200
  bond-lacp-rate 1
  bond-xmit-hash-policy layer2+3

Alternatively, use bond-mode active-backup:

iface bond0 inet static
  bond-mode active-backup
  bond-miimon 100
  bond-downdelay 200
  bond-updelay 200