Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that render an argument invalid. They are often used to manipulate or deceive, and can be difficult to spot.
Fallacy of composition
If it's true for one, it's true for all.
Fallacy of division
If it's true for all, it's true for one.
The probability of an event is influenced by previous events.
You're a hypocrite, so your argument is invalid.
Who are you to talk?
Wilfully misrepresenting someone's argument, often in a hyperbolic fashion, to make it easier to attack.
Attacking the person making the argument, rather than the argument itself.
Assuming an argument is invalid because of its source.
Fallacious appeal to authority
Because an authority figure says it, it must be true.
Introducing irrelevant information to distract from the argument.
Appeal to emotion
Manipulating an emotional response in place of a valid argument.
Appeal to popularity (bandwagon)
Appeal to tradition
Appeal to nature
Appeal to ignorance
Begging the question
Assuming to be true what you're trying to prove.
Using one word to mean two different things.
Black/white; there is no middle ground.
Assuming the answer lies in the middle ground of two extremes.
Can't distinguish between two things because they're on a scale.
If we allow this, then this will happen, all the way to doom.
Hasty generalisations (anecdotes)
Drawing a conclusion from a small sample size.
Drawing a conclusion from a poor analogy.
Burden of proof
The burden is on the person making the claim, not those disputing it.
Affirming the consequent
If P, then Q. Q, therefore P.
Denying the antecedent
If P, then Q. Not P, therefore not Q.
Moving the goalposts
Changing the criteria of a test after it has started.
Correlation does not imply causation.
Cherry-picking data clusters to suit an argument.
Asking a question that has an assumption built into it, such that it can't be answered without appearing guilty.
No true Scotsman
Dismissing counterexamples as exceptions.
Because I can't understand it, it must not be true.
Just because an argument is fallacious, it doesn't mean the conclusion is wrong.
Continuing to invest in something because you've already invested in it.